Hi and welcome to james and john's project page

On this webpage you will find a project all about malaria which we have been researching on

HYPOTHESIS: You cannot kill a malaria parasite when it is inside a human body

QUESTION: Can you kill the malaria parasite when it is inside a human body

AIM: To carry out an experiment which will determine a positive yes or no

( click here to see our presentation on malaria and mosquitoes ) important: when download box appers click open not save.

Diagnosis from (www.wpro.who.int/rdt/)

Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) assist in the diagnosis of malaria by detecting evidence of malaria parasites in human blood.

Malaria occurs almost exclusively in the tropics and sub-tropics, and is associated in many areas with poverty and poor health infrastructure. Malaria RDTs, also known as "Dipsticks" or "Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Devices (MRDDs)", have potential to greatly improve the quality of management of malaria infections in these areas when the main alternative form of diagnosis, high quality microscopy, is not readily available.

Symptoms:

Headache, shivering, hot and cold flushes, fever, aching joints, tiredness and a 80%+ chance of DEATH!!!!!

TREATMENT: found at (rbm) roll back malaria

Recent estimates of the global malaria burden have shown increasing levels of malaria morbidity and mortality, reflecting the deterioration of the malaria situation in Africa during the 1990s. About 90% of all malaria deaths occur in Africa south of the Sahara, and the great majority of them in children under five.

Key among the factors contributing to the increasing malaria mortality and morbidity is the widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine, sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine. Multidrug-resistant P.falciparum malaria is widely prevalent in south-east Asia and South America. Now Africa, the continent with highest burden of malaria, is also being affected. Resistance to inexpensive monotherapies such as chloroquine and SP has developed or is developing rapidly, with increased mortality as a result.

The inappropriate use of antimalarial drugs during the past century has contributed to the current situation: antimalarial drugs were deployed on a large scale, always as monotherapies, introduced in sequence, and were generally poorly managed in that their use was continued despite unacceptably high levels of resistance. In addition, there has been over-reliance on both quinoline compounds (i.e. quinine, chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine and primaquine) and antifolate drugs (i.e. sulfonamides, pyrimethamine, proguanil and chlorproguanil), with consequent encouragement of cross-resistance among these compounds.

Over the past decade, a new group of antimalarials – the artemisinin compounds, especially artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin – have been deployed on an increasingly large scale. These compounds produce a very rapid therapeutic response (reduction of the parasite biomass and resolution of symptoms), are active against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria, are well tolerated by the patients and reduce gametocyte carriage (and thus have the potential to reduce transmission of malaria). To date, no parasite resistance to these compounds has been detected. If used alone, the artemisinins will cure falciparum malaria in 7 days, but studies in south-east Asia have shown that combinations of artemisinin compounds with certain synthetic drugs produce high cure rates on just 3 days of treatment. Furthermore, there is some evidence that use of such combinations can greatly retard development of resistance to the partner drug.

HYPOTHESIS 2 : Natual immunity is more effective than drugs

QUESTION 2 : How effective is natural immunity?

AIM 2 : To research and analyse data for groups of people that have taken that drug to treat malaria compared with data for groups that have not used drugs

OBJECTIVES: DESCRIBE PATTERNS OF IMMUNITY AND DRUG USE

 

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this webpage was created by jmes carpenter and john lynch on the 5 august 2004